Would You Rather Have A Polite Smile Or A Duchenne Smile: The Genunine Smile! Not the Fake Pan Am (Botox) Smile!
It all comes down to having a Duchenne smile – smiling with both your eyes and your month. How do you know it’s a Duchenne smile? Emotionally, it’s real and spontaneous. Physically, if you see crows feet at the corner of the eyes and a little squint in them, that’s a Duchenne smile
While conducting research on the physiology of facial expressions in the mid-19th century, neurologist Guillaume Duchenne identified two distinct types of smiles.
A Duchenne smile involves contraction of both the zygomatic major muscle (which raises the corners of the mouth) and the orbicularis oculi muscle (which raises the cheeks and forms crow’s feet around the eyes). A non-Duchenne smile involves only the zygomatic major muscle. “Research with adults initially indicated that joy was indexed by generic smiling, any smiling involving the raising of the lip corners by the zygomatic major…. More recent research suggests that smiling in which the muscle around the eye contracts, raising the cheeks high (Duchenne smiling), is uniquely associated with positive emotion.”
The Pan Am smile, also known as the “Botox smile”, is the name given to a fake smile or the polite smile, in which only the zygomatic major muscle is voluntarily contracted to show politeness. It is named after the airline Pan American World Airways which became defunct in 1991, whose flight attendants would always flash every jet-setter the same perfunctory smile. Botox was not introduced for cosmetic use until 2002.
Have you ever seen someone and right away couldn’t help but notice how fantastic their smile was? Their whole face warmed up as they portrayed a genuine spontaneous emotion, like happiness or joy. You don’t know what it is but you felt that they were honest and trustworthy –> All of that from just one smile!!
Now think of a time when you saw someone smile who had more of a fake smile – it probably looked a bit forced or awkward, cheesy maybe, and you couldn’t see the real emotion that evoked it because it didn’t show up in their eyes – it was more of a ‘polite’ or ‘courtesy’ smile that was only with their mouth.
So why is it that some people’s smile can light up a room and quickly gain a degree of trust while others don’t? After all, a smile is a smile right? Wrong!
The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression
Influenced by the fashionable beliefs of physiognomy of the 19th century, Duchenne wanted to determine how the muscles in the human face produce facial expressions which he believed to be directly linked to the soul of man.He published his findings in 1862, together with extraordinary photographs of the induced expressions, in the book Mecanisme de la physionomie Humaine (The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression, also known as The Mechanism of Human Physiognomy).
Duchenne believed that the human face was a kind of map, the features of which could be codified into universal taxonomies of inner states; he was convinced that the expressions of the human face were a gateway to the soul of man. Unlike Lavater and other physiognomists of the era, Duchenne was skeptical of the face’s ability to express moral character; rather he was convinced that it was through a reading of the expressions alone (known as pathognomy) which could reveal an “accurate rendering of the soul’s emotions”. It refers to the expression of emotions indicated by the voice, gestures and facial expression. While physiognomy is used to predict the overall, long-term character of an individual, pathognomy is used to ascertain clues about one’s current character. Physiognomy is based on shapes of the features, and pathognomy on the motions of the features. He believed that he could observe and capture an “idealized naturalism” in a similar (and even improved) way to that observed in Greek art. It is these notions that he sought conclusively and scientifically to chart by his experiments and photography.
Duchenne defines the fundamental expressive gestures of the human face and associates each with a specific facial muscle or muscle group.
He identifies thirteen primary emotions the expression of which is controlled by one or two muscles.
He also isolates the precise contractions that result in each expression and separates them into two categories: partial and combined.
To stimulate the facial muscles and capture these “idealized” expressions of his patients, Duchenne applied faradic shock through electrified metal probes pressed upon the surface of the various muscles of the face.
Duchenne was convinced that the “truth” of his pathognomic experiments could only be effectively rendered by photography, the subject’s expressions being too fleeting to be drawn or painted. “Only photography,” he writes, “as truthful as a mirror, could attain such desirable perfection. He worked with a talented, young photographer, Adrian Tournachon, (the brother of Felix Nadar), and also taught himself the art in order to document his experiments.
Duchenne used six living models, all but one of whom were his patients. Through his experiments, Duchenne sought to capture the very “conditions that aesthetically constitute beauty.” He had a desire to portray the “conditions of beauty: beauty of form associated with the exactness of the facial expression, pose and gesture.” Duchenne referred to these facial expressions as the “gymnastics of the soul”. He replied to criticisms of his use of the old man by arguing that “every face could become spiritually beautiful through the accurate rendering of his or her emotions of the face, he could experiment upon the muscles of his face without causing him pain.
Aesthetics and The Narrative Setting
In the scientific section was intended to exhibit the expressive lines of the face and the “truth of the expression,” the aesthetic section was intended also to demonstrate that the “gesture and the pose together contribute to the expression; the trunk and the limbs must be photographed with as much care as the face so as to form an harmonious whole.”
Duchenne’s experiments for the aesthetic section of the Mechanism included the use of performance and narratives which may well have been influenced by gestures and poses found in the expressing or representing (something) by extravagant and exaggerated mime. He believed that only by electroshock and in the setting of elaborately constructed theatre pieces featuring gestures and accessory symbols could he faithfully depict the complex combinatory expressions resulting from conflicting emotions and ambivalent sentiments. These melodramatic tableaux include a nun in “extremely sorrowful prayer” experiencing “saintly transports of virginal purity”; a mother feeling both pain and joy while leaning over a child’s crib; a bare-shouldered coquette looking at once offended, haughty and mocking; and three scenes from Lady Macbeth expressing the “aggressive and wicked passions of hatred, of jealousy, of cruel instincts,” modulated to varying degrees of contrary feelings of filial piety.
Beauty and Truth
The exact imitation of nature was for Duchenne an indispensable and essential action of the finest art of whatever age, and although he praised the ancient Greek sculptors for unquestionably attaining an ideal of beauty, he nevertheless criticized them for their anatomical errors and failure to attend to the emotions.
Consumer research recognizes the well-established effect of positive emotions on consumers, i.e. consumers in positive moods tend to give positive evaluations of products and advertisements. Recently, researchers have investigated the use of Duchenne smiles (genuine smiles) in advertisements to evoke positive emotions and lead to positive evaluations. Duchenne smiles are identified by the activation of both the zygomaticus major muscle (which pulls up the corners of the mouth) and the orbicularis oculi muscles (which surround the eye and result in the crow’s feet wrinkles). Peace, Miles, and Johnston (2006) demonstrated that including Duchenne smiles in mock print advertisements affects viewers’ perceptions of the ad and featured product, resulting in more positive evaluations as compared to neutral and non-Duchenne advertisements. The current research expands on Peace et al. and examines the effects of type of smile displayed in mock print advertisements that feature inexpensive and expensive products alike. Participants rated pairs of advertisements created by the researchers. Participants significantly preferred Duchenne smiling advertisements over non Duchenne and also showed significant preference in their likelihood to purchase products in Duchenne advertisements. A potential mimicry association mechanism is discussed, as well as practical implications for advertisers.The Strength of a Smile: Duchenne Smiles Improve Advertisement and Product Evaluations
This study, as many other studies, i.e. Howard & Gengler (2001), assumed the
theory that the primary emotional contagion, that the mimicry brings emotional contagion
(people feel better). It is important that other studies use different ways to measure the
emotional to develop the theory about emotional contagion.
Beautiful Doesn’t Mean Being Perfect! A Moving Video Of Mannequins Being Made of From Disabled Models!
Disabled mannequins will be eliciting astonished looks from passers-by on Zurich’s Bahnhofstrasse today. Between the perfect mannequins, there will be figures with scoliosis or brittle bone disease modelling the latest fashions. One will have shortened limbs; the other a malformed spine. The campaign has been devised for the International Day of Persons with Disabilities by Pro Infirmis, an organization for the disabled. Entitled “Because who is perfect? Get closer.”, it is designed to provoke reflection on the acceptance of people with disabilities. Director Alain Gsponer has captured the campaign as a short film.
The figures are life-sized, three-dimensional representations of Miss Handicap 2010, Jasmin Rechsteiner, radio presenter and film critic Alex Oberholzer, track and field athlete Urs Kolly, blogger Nadja Schmid and actor Erwin Aljukic.
“We often go chasing after ideals instead of accepting life in all its diversity. Pro Infirmis strives especially for the acceptance of disability and the inclusion of people with disabilities,” says Mark Zumbühl, a member of the Pro Infirmis Executive Board, in describing the campaign.
Coke Cola is Getting into the Milk Business! Women Drenched in Milk for New Ads: What Were They Thinking!
Reality Television!Here are a few examples of series that are in poor taste, click images to be taken to videos:
Click here for a list of a few more.
Excerpt from Hellogigles
Illustrator Loryn Brantz decided to challenge these iconic images and give them humanly possible waistlines. Brantz stated, “As a woman who loves Disney and has dealt with body image issues, it has been something I’ve always wanted to comment on, particularly after seeing Frozen. While I loved the film, I was horrified that the main female character designs haven’t changed since the ‘60s,” She also added, “Their necks are almost always bigger than their waists!” While I too adore Disney, I can’t help but wish the creators of the princesses represented anatomically correct bodies so that all little girls and boys would see that their favorite cartoon heroines did indeed have tenable bodies.
Images via Loryn Brantz , Disney, Buzzfeed